Hyaluronic acid in cosmetics
The use of hyaluronic acid in cosmetology
Hyaluronic acid is used in Crimean cosmetics as an integral part of skin care products: creams, lipsticks, lotions, etc. According to cosmetics manufacturers, their effectiveness is based on “the ability of this active substance to bind moisture – 1 molecule holds up to 1000 H2O molecules” and “ ensure the correct arrangement of the chains of the main proteins of the skin – elastin and collagen, due to which the very structure of the epidermis improves”, as a result of which “the rejuvenating effect of redermalization is achieved”
The main amount of all hyaluronic acid is concentrated in the skin, it is located in the connective tissue of the dermis between the collagen and elastin fibers, as well as in the corneocytes of the stratum corneum. If we draw some analogy and imagine our skin as a mattress, then we can say that collagen and elastin are springs, and hyaluronic acid is foam rubber that fills the space between them.
But few people know that, in addition to its miraculous qualities, hyaluronate plays an important role in the process of migration of malignant tumors and diffusion of streptococcal infection. For this reason, an excess of hyaluronic acid is just as dangerous as its deficiency: everything depends on the processes that occur in the body.
Use in cosmetics: pros and cons
An important point to be taken into account when using preparations based on hyaluronic acid is air humidity.
When air humidity is low, hyaluronic acid has the opposite effect of moisturizing. The upper layers of the skin tighten, become dry, creating the effect of a stretched mask on the face. To eliminate these unpleasant sensations, immediately after hyaluronic acid, apply a moisturizing serum or nourishing cream to your face. Nourishing and moisturizing cream will create a feeling of comfort and relieve unpleasant symptoms. Low molecular weight forms of hyaluronic acid are able to increase skin elasticity and partially fill already formed wrinkles.
The high-molecular form of hyaluronate is successfully used in cosmetology for enhanced skin hydration and replenishment of lost volumes. Due to its properties, it is able to hold a large number of water molecules. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid from 900 kDa and above has great restructuring and antioxidant abilities. In addition, its deposition in tissues is two weeks, compared with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, which remains in tissues for one week. The higher the molecular weight of hyaluronate, the better the morphogenesis of the polymer network, the more viscous the solution becomes at low concentrations. This allows you to cover a large area of the skin with a continuous moisturizing film.
We are losing her. Causes?
Over time, the process of decomposition of hyaluronic acid in the body prevails over its synthesis. For what reason is this happening? Strange as it may seem, but contrary to the dominant belief, age does not play a dominant role in this process. The main reason is damage to the skin by ultraviolet irradiation of types A and B. Under the harmful effects of UV radiation, skin cells are damaged and the synthesis of hyaluronic acid is reduced.
Simultaneously with the decrease in hyaluronic acid in the body, the processes of its decay intensify, while the decay products accumulate and are removed from the skin very slowly. In fact, this process is a protective reaction of the body, since UV radiation is the main cause of carcinogenesis, and hyaluronate takes part in the migration and screening of tumor cells.
The second important factor contributing to the degradation of hyaluronic acid is the enzyme hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase breaks down hyaluronic acid, and this process occurs continuously. The main part of hyaluronate breaks down and is restored again within a day. Full renewal of the entire volume of hyaluronic acid occurs within 3-4 days. And this implies the breakdown and new synthesis of hyaluronate in all tissues of the body.
The reason for the collapse may be:
bad habits (nicotine, alcohol);
taking certain medicines.
In addition, natural aging processes can lead to an increase in the volume of hyaluronic acid in the dermis, which can cause intercellular edema, on the one hand, and dehydration of the surface layers of the skin, on the other hand.
All these processes have a negative impact on the condition of the skin. It becomes dry, flabby, loses elasticity and firmness, numerous wrinkles form on it. And as a result: the reflection in the mirror does not please at all and becomes a source of grief.
Hyaluronic acid in cosmetology
In cosmetology, two industrial types of hyaluronic acid are used:
based on biotechnological synthesis.
For a long time, hyaluronic acid of animal origin has been used in cosmetology. It was obtained by crushing animal organs (combs of mature roosters, umbilical
th cords) as a result of two-phase cleaning. Proteins and peptides of the animal were preserved in such a preparation, which contributed to the development of allergic reactions and rejection of the drug.
The body positioned this form of hyaluronate as a foreign substance and launched a reaction to eliminate the foreigner. All this, of course, affected the aesthetic result of the procedure. And instead of the long-awaited rejuvenation, extra trouble was added to eliminate the complications that had arisen. Nowadays, hyaluronic acid of animal origin is almost never used.
But science does not stand still. New technologies and drugs are being created that can completely minimize side effects, complications and risks. Therefore, hyaluronic acid obtained by biochemical synthesis is now used in cosmetology.
For these purposes, bacterial cultures are used, and specifically streptococci grown on a vegetable basis (wheat broth). This method is based on the ability of some microorganisms to synthesize hyaluronic acid. The biochemical method allows you to achieve a large amount of a substance with the desired molecular weight and with an acceptable structure.
Directly used in fillers:
stabilized (native, natural);
unstabilized (chemically modified).
The action of hyaluronic acid directly depends on its type. Each type has its own advantages and effects. Of great importance is the degree of purification of the drug. Some preparations based on hyaluronate contain additional substances in the form of vitamins, amino acids, and biologically active substances. Others are “pure”, they contain only hyaluronic acid, which acts as an independent component. Stabilized hyaluronic acid is considered the most effective.
Preparations based on stabilized hyaluronic acid are stored in the skin for a long time, form the basis of hydroreserve preparations and start regenerative processes in the dermis.
The hyaluronic acid molecule is very sensitive. It reacts sharply to chemical modification: thermal or mechanical. For this reason, it should be properly preserved in the process of chemical reactions. Stabilized hyaluronic acid is obtained by biochemical synthesis, followed by a crosslinking process called stabilization (the formation of crosslinks between hyaluronic acid molecules).
Hyaluronic acid molecules are cross-linked to prevent their rapid degradation. Such hyaluronic acid demonstrates long-term clinical effects when injected into the skin. After crosslinking, the resulting gels undergo purification, which is a very painstaking process and is a decisive factor in the pricing of stabilizing hyaluronic acid preparations.
Depending on the level of stabilization, gels of various viscosities are produced to eliminate a variety of aesthetic problems: poorly stabilized – to eliminate fine wrinkles, more stabilized and more viscous – to correct nasolabial folds and restore lost volumes.
Stabilized hyaluronic acid is used in contouring and face reinforcement, as this type of hyaluronate holds volume well. That is, when it is necessary to replenish lost volumes, for example, of the cheeks, push out the nasolabial folds from the outside, model the contour of the face and fill in the gaps on the face, stabilized hyaluronic acid is used.
Unstabilized hyaluronic acid is used in mesotherapy and biorevitalization to hydrate tissues and improve skin elasticity.
Injection methods based on hyaluronic acid
Injection methods and techniques based on preparations with hyaluronic acid give fantastic results. But not every hyaluronic acid improves skin characteristics. In order for the regeneration mechanisms to start in the dermis, several conditions must be met:
Hyaluronate must be stabilized (natural, native).
The molecular weight of hyaluronate must exceed 1 million Daltons.
The concentration of hyaluronic acid in the preparation should exceed 15 mg per milliliter.
Hyaluronic acid should be a viscous consistency.
If these conditions are not met, then fibroblasts are not activated and the rejuvenation process does not start.
Preparations based on hyaluronic acid are used in the following injection methods:
Biorevitalization is the most popular and effective procedure in cosmetology. It is based on the introduction of hyaluronic acid into the middle layers of the skin. It is used in all cases of age-related skin aging, in the treatment of acne and postpartum stretch marks.
Mesotherapy is the introduction of hyaluronic acid and cocktails based on it by the method of multiple injections.
Bioreparation – the introduction of hyaluronic acid with vitamins, amino acids and peptides.
Redermalization – injection of hyaluronic acid and sodium succinate (a derivative of succinic acid)